A Primer on Virtue & Spiritual Growth Manual For Christians

By Cris Hernandez, Child of God

 

Table of Contents

Introduction

Part I – Preparation

“I have been crucified with Christ; and it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me; and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave Himself up for me.”  (Gal.2:20)

Chapter

1) Notes on Spiritual Growth            

2) Definitions 

3) All Human Needs Are Satisfied In Christ

4) Anatomy of Temptation that Leads to Sin and Bondage 

5) Understanding the Meaning of Virtue      

6) The Beginning of Spiritual Warfare; Knowledge of Good and Evil

7) The Purpose of Studying Virtues:  part 1- Obedience

8) The Purpose of Studying Virtues:  part 2- Knowing and Pleasing God

9) The Purpose of Studying Virtues:  part 3- Preparing for Heaven

10) The Acquisition of Virtues:  How To

 

Part II – Pursuit

“Though He slay me, I will hope in Him.”  Job

 Chapter

11) The Foundations of Virtue:  Fear of the Lord, Knowledge, Wisdom

12) The Pursuit of Virtue:  Faith, Courage

13) Recognizing Virtue:  Discernment, Remembrance, Watchfulness                      

-The “D” test for discerning goodness from evil

14) An Attitude of Virtue:  Peace, Abiding Prayer, Stillness, Hope 

15) Perpetuating Virtue:  Purity, Simplicity, Honesty, Integrity       

16) The Pleasure of Virtue:  Joy, Thankfulness, Praise      

17) The Essentials of Virtue:  Humility, Selflessness, Goodness

18) Sharing Virtue: Justice, Dignity, Mercy  

19) Virtue and the Human Will:  Self-Control, Patience, Gentleness

20) Empowering Virtue: Charity, Generosity, Hospitality

21) The Beauty of Virtue: Forgiveness, Kindness, Compassion

22) The Fulfillment of Virtue:  Love

 

“There is a principle which is a bar against all information, which is proof against all arguments and which cannot fail to keep a man in everlasting ignorance – that principle is contempt prior to investigation” 

Herbert Spencer as quoted in “Alcoholics Anonymous” © 1939, 1955, 1976 by Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc.

 

Introduction

            The purpose of this book is to encourage and to challenge fellow Christians to a life of greater intimacy with God.  The study of virtues is the means to this end.  This book defines virtues as the characteristics of God, the fruits of the Holy Spirit, that we can aspire to obtain as part of our own being.  To know virtue experientially, is to know God, and to know Him as if He were a flesh and blood companion of many years whose personality and characteristics are familiar and recognizable enough to be emulated.  To study virtues is to learn the ways of God such that His workmanship is readily discernible in us, in others, and in the world around us.

 

Hebrews chapter 4, verse 12 describes the Word of God as a razor sharp, double-edged blade that easily slices the meat off the bone.  In that spirit, this book aims to be a stiletto, a dagger that is just long enough, just narrow enough, and so very pointed, that it slides easily through the protective rib cage and goes straight to the heart.  Thus slain by His Word and crucified with Christ (Gal.2:20), a death to self that we might be alive in Him, the work of separating the flesh from the spirit can begin.

 

The pursuit of virtue is presented here as an exercise in spiritual growth.  Spiritual growth means increasing our awareness of the presence of God in our day-to-day lives while conforming our ways to His, from the core of our being outward.  Prior to examining individual virtues, spiritual growth issues will be reviewed in detail, including specific “how to” recommendations.  It is imperative that we prepare our hearts in humility and submission as well as being well practiced at confession and repentance prior to our attempt to learn virtue.  Since God is the goal of our pursuit, it is best understood upfront that encounters with God can be very humbling experiences.   His awesome holiness is so overwhelmingly powerful and pure, all our impurities and ungodliness become grotesquely obvious to us as we near Him.  First, our imperfections are exposed and then our faithless bravadoes and facades are completely stripped away from us, for no unclean or impure thing can exist in His presence.  Akin to being naked, defenseless, and completely humiliated, our flesh will want to grab familiar garb and lean on comfortable crutches rather than let go of worldly ways so that our spirit may move freely toward God.  We need to be prepared for this encounter or we will be no less devastated than Isaiah (Is.6:5) when confronted with the ugliness of sin which dwells in our flesh (Rom.7).  Prior to studying virtue and having a more intimate, intense relationship with God, we as Christians, as children of God, need to be fully assured that God loves us.  We need to know with conviction that Christ has provided the means for the forgiveness of our sins (1Jn.1:9), and that in Christ we are wholly acceptable to God and welcome into His presence, worthy of His blessings (Eph.4:20-24, Gal.4:4-7).

 

With the threat of devastation to our self-image now looming, the question as to why we should pursue a study of virtues begs to be answered.  Many reasons could be given here as to why Christians should be acquainted with the virtues, but the primary reason is unity with God.  Unity with Him is the ultimate purpose of this life God has given us; it is how we honor Him best.  Virtue puts our lives in accord with life as God intended it to be.  The resulting harmony of His purpose and our intent added to the indescribable joys and pleasures we experience as we grow in nearness to God, the source of all goodness, makes this endeavor the most rewarding life pursuit option available to us.   Also, part of the beauty of this pursuit is that it can be done while pursuing other life interests, and as long as the ways of God are given top priority, all other areas of life become richer, fuller, and more rewarding.  As Jesus said, His yoke isn’t burdensome or weighty (cf. Mt.11:28-30), and the pursuit engenders the fullness and abundance of life Christ promised (Jn.10:10).

 

Our study of virtues isn’t merely a discourse on individual virtues and love isn’t just presented as the supreme virtue.  Though Jesus clearly teaches us the supremacy of love in Mt. 22:35-40, the focus here is more in line with verse 40, where Jesus says that love is the fulfillment of the law  (also see 1Pe.4:8;  Rom.13:8,10; Gal.5:14;  Jas.2:8).  In this work, love is presented as the fulfillment of all virtues and as the supernatural life of Christ as expressed through us.  Presenting the interdependency of virtues and expressing the need for them to grow together, may be a new approach to some readers.  The study of the component virtues provides the building blocks, or stepping stones, that need to be in place as we are learning to love.  Two things to note here, first, this work is not meant to be merely a source of information or read as a mental exercise.  Virtues must be lived in order to be learned, and this requires practicing their expression as we tend to the daily circumstances of our individual lives.  Secondly, our pursuit of virtue equates to the pursuit of God, for God is love, and since God is eternal and infinite, it is important to understand that we will never in our time on Earth be finished with this pursuit.  As humbling as this can be, to believe otherwise may lead to unnecessary frustration from our perpetual failings, or worse, giving up the pursuit altogether.

 

The pursuit of virtue also involves spiritual warfare, for there is no way to grow spiritually without combating the demons.  Demons can be understood as any obstacle that prevents a soul from being wholly united with God and His will, as the rebellions and temptations we face when we attempt to surrender fully our human will to His divine will.  The Bible portrays demons as the legions of fallen angels who are loyal to Satan, having both intelligence and purpose (Mt.12:25-27; 2Cor.2:10-11; Eph.6:11-13; Rev.12).  Their aim is to defame God and desecrate all that is sacred.  They especially hate Christian souls who have a sincere and strong desire to worship God and honor all that is His.  Demons operate using the powers of suggestion and persuasion to communicate with human souls.  They tempt the children of God into acting outside of His will.  They easily influence ungodly souls who are not even aware that demonic suggestions are not their own ideas and therefore unable to separate evil notions from their own thoughts.  The greater their influence over a soul, greater is the soul’s potential for committing acts of heinous evil.  This work aims to prepare us for this battle by first revealing the demon’s tactics and then explaining how to overcome their assaults.  Lack of preparation here can likewise have devastating results.

 

The author is a firm believer that unity in Christ and expressing the love of God are far more important than strict adherence to the doctrines that serve to divide His disciples.  Accordingly, an effort has been made to walk lightly around theological issues, choosing certain words that are less likely to be the cause of theological debate, while defining others within this text so that the reader knows the author’s intended meaning (2Tim.2:14).  For example, “unity” will be used frequently; “salvation”, “theosis”, “justification” and “sanctification” are used sparingly.   It is the author’s prayer that the purpose of this text, for us all to grow in nearness and likeness to our Lord Christ Jesus, not be compromised by our doctrinal differences.  As Christians, we all read the same book; therefore, the Bible is liberally referenced in this text as an inerrant and authoritative source of Truth.  Again, it is the author’s prayer that any current differences in our understanding and application of scripture not become an impediment to our pursuit of virtue.  The author also invites the readers to read around, or translate into their own framework of beliefs, any statement herein that is a matter of doctrinal interpretation in order to keep from dismissing the intent of the text altogether.  Likewise, if the author’s definitions don’t match the reader’s definition, the reader is invited to switch the pairings of words and their definitions throughout the text.  Giving priority to meanings instead of demanding that a particular word convey the same theological concept for all Christians is one way to keep from compromising our unity in Christ.  The author prays for your indulgence for the rewards of virtue are great.

 

Also, please do not take the aforementioned warnings lightly, learning to live in the spiritual realm has inherent dangers, whether from agitating the demons or from adverse reactions to encounters with the holiness of God.  To proceed without proper preparation is analogous to getting married without first being willing to make a faithful commitment, or having children without first being willing to put aside selfish, self-serving ways in order to rightly provide for them.  Lack of preparation here can be similarly painful and harmful to self and others. It is quite intentional that the first 10 chapters of this book all concern preparation for the 12 that follow.  It is also recommended that this undertaking not be done alone, the use of a mentor is highly recommended, as is having someone to provide feedback and compare notes.  Before proceeding, a few more specific precautions:

  • Do not compare yourself or your progress to others, you will either become smug and conceited, or disillusioned and defeated; learn to be satisfied with simply pleasing God.  Comparing ourselves to others always leads to sinful pride or an erroneous sense of inadequacy.
  • Do not believe any suggestion that the pursuit of virtue is futile, unrewarding or unfulfilling, all such suggestions are from the demons and are contrary to the Word of God.
  • Keep your primary focus on Jesus and the examples of the saints who have gone before us, do not dwell on your successes or failures; again the result is either pride or frustration.
  • As we grow spiritually and learn to recognize the goodness of God more readily, it should become easier to compliment and encourage others as we learn to live our lives in the fullness of His love.  Likewise, ungodliness also becomes more apparent.  Do not succumb to self-loathing or the temptation to point out the failings of others, and do not lose heart when those who were once esteemed begin to appear all too human.

 

The author would also like the reader to understand that these lessons were originally prepared so that the author could learn about virtue.  The author does not claim to be a “paragon of virtue”, but rather a soul who came to Christ as an adult and has had to unlearn a wealth of sinful habits in order to learn of virtue.  There are many un-referenced sources in this work because the author pursued many topical studies prior to formulating the idea of writing a book.  These sources include books, magazines, preachers on the radio and television, pastors and priests during worship services, classes, friends, and so on.  One last note; the scripture passages following the chapter texts contain lessons to be learned as taught to me in my personal travels and studies, they aren’t meant to be literal or condensed translations.

 

I pray ye well.

 

Cris Hernandez

Child of God

email:  aprimeronvirtue@yahoogroups.com

 

 

Copyright Information:

King James Version (KJV):  public domain (http://www.biblegateway.com/cgi-bin/bible)

New American Standard Bible (NASB*):  © Copyright 1960, 1962, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1995 by The Lockman Foundation

New International Version (NIV):  © Copyright 1973, 1978, 1984 by International Bible Society

(* Unless otherwise noted, scripture passages quoted within this text are from the NASB)

The Philokalia: (Vol. I © 1979 The Eling Trust; Vol. II © 1981 The Eling Trust; Vol. III © 1984 The Eling Trust; Vol. IV © 1995 The Eling Trust; Vol.V unavailable to the author)

Concerning scripture contained within quotes taken from The Philokalia, “All Biblical passages have been translated directly from the Greek as given in the original Philokalia.  This means that quotations from the Old Testament are normally based on the Greek Septuagint text.”   (from the translators of the Philokalia)

Note:  text within the quotes from the Philokalia and elsewhere contained within brackets “[example]” is from the author.

 

The author extends his appreciation to all his teachers whose thoughts are contained within this text as well as to those who supported him while these lessons were being prepared.

 

Chapter 22 – The Fulfillment of Virtue – Love

Love:  the sacrificial nurturing and caring for another person, body, soul and spirit; the life of Christ within us expressed outwardly

Love is the fulfillment of virtue in that it encompasses and employs all other virtues.  If we have learned our lessons from the previous chapters, we already have all the necessary ingredients of love in our hearts (1Cor.13).   Here we learn to blend them all together into a single thought and expression.   Love singularly fulfills virtue with the fullness of God, leaving no quarter for any semblance of evil or sin.  Showing love is how we care for the needs of others, whether this means the basics of food, clothing and shelter, or the soulful needs for learning, growing and emotional support, or sharing the spiritual bread and water of life.  The fullness of love is expressed when we surrender our wills to our Lord and allow Him to live His life through us, for God is love (1Jn.4).

 

The love we speak of here is not to be equated with the romantic or erotic passions that are a part of the normal human desire to mate; the love we speak of here doesn’t require “to have and to hold” another.  Likewise, love is neither the extent to which another pleases us nor a mere bodily response to physical and emotional sensations.  Love is neither an excuse to sin nor does it legitimize ungodly, reckless behaviors that endanger self or others.  The love of God that we are to express to all souls, especially in our closest relationships, always upholds the virtues we have learned in the preceding chapters.

 

To love others means knowing the Truth of God and living life accordingly.  It is letting our knowledge of Truth govern all our interactions, drawing upon His wisdom to provide us with the answers as to how best to tend to life.  We also love by sharing Truth and wisdom with those we’ve been given to love.  Our fear of the Lord brings His presence into all our relationships, ensuring our conscience is in accord with His goodness while stripping away the fantasies and delusions that lead to a myriad of maladies that compromise healthy interaction.  As we grow spiritually and mature in our Christ-likeness, we learn of His wisdom.  Doing so gives us broader and deeper insights into our life choices which in turn leads to making godly and productive decisions that are more rewarding than their fleshly alternatives.

 

Our love for others is based upon our faith in God, His power and His provision; we needn’t be overcome by our personal shortcomings or difficult circumstances.  Our faith leads to a courage that gives us the ability to maintain our virtue and bring the goodness of God to bear upon any situation.   Abiding in the Holy Spirit, we have the power to act according to His will; we are blest accordingly.  In addition, to exercise the virtue of love is to practice remembrance and watchfulness, knowing that any given moment is an occasion to express the love of God and lay the groundwork for a more godly future.   We recall the goodness of our Lord, how He has cared for us in the past so that we might fully trust in Him in the moment, and in turn demonstrate His love by loving those around us.  Likewise, we practice watchfulness and are able to recognize the hand of our Lord in our current circumstances so that we might join in His work while avoiding the pitfalls and traps the demons use to lead us astray.  The pursuit of virtue develops our power of discernment such that we can more easily see the way of our Lord, learning to love others as He loves us and prevent succumbing to fleshly lusts and evil temptations.

 

Since our love has the Word of our eternal Lord as its foundation, we are blessed with an unshakeable stillness that fosters the trust of God and our fellows as we walk in His ways.  We become worthy of being entrusted with greater responsibilities that lead to even greater deeds with even greater rewards.  The peace of our Lord sates our souls with a sense of fullness and satisfaction, freeing us from trivial neediness or grotesque wantonness, allowing us to tend to all His creation with unsullied motives.  By abiding in the loving ways of the Holy Spirit, we become a beacon of light for lost souls in a darkened world, showing others His way, reaping love from teaching others these lessons.  As we see others being touched with His goodness, we in turn become acquainted with the encouragement of hope that lets us know all things are possible in Him and that there are always better things yet to come.

 

Our love for others is expressed with purity, cleansed from sin, free of self-serving motivations and without selfish, fleshly lusts; love is holy unto the Lord.  Its singularity of purpose and intent keeps us focused on God, undeterred by demonic distractions while caring for and providing nurture for those around us.  The absence of duplicity in our motives brings simplicity into our lives; we live free of the complications and chaotic consequences of sin.  Our expression of love will be honest, in accord with the Truth of the Word of God and without any traces of deception or delusion.  Our integrity will prevent our love from being compromised by worldly temptations, dire circumstances or mistreatment; it will be tireless and ever-present, not succumbing to frustrations, tedium, futility, fears, impatience, or any other irritant that might otherwise exhaust our souls.

 

Our love will be expressed with joy, for our hearts will know the goodness of our Lord and be gladdened.  We will enjoy the elation that accompanies praising and worshipping God in all that we do, being energized by His presence because pleasing the Lord is also our pleasure.  Our love will also be expressed with thankfulness, free of complaints, criticisms, and unnecessary characterizations, for such thoughts only serve to compromise our virtue by impugning our ability to give thanks to God in all things.  The absence of ingratitude in our lives leads to an absence of resentments; we will not isolate ourselves away from individuals and communal activities due to any ill feelings towards those around us.  Instead, we will abide in an appreciation of His blessings, beginning with life itself and including all the wondrous things that fill His creation, finding joy in our loving interactions with others, ever thankful for His saving grace.

 

Our love will be expressed with a humility that has the life of the incarnate Christ as its source.  Our inspired deeds will not be cause for self-aggrandizement, but rather be cause for giving thanks for His presence, His trust in us, and the talents and virtues He gives us that make it possible for us to create a trove of treasures in Heaven.  Our care and nurture of others will be done selflessly, for our love is enabled by the fullness and abundance of our life in Christ who has at His disposal everything we need.  We are His children and we have been given an inheritance of His Kingdom in the Holy Spirit.  Therefore, we are empowered to give without thought of recompense, reward, or recognition since God exists without need for anything and our life is in Him.  Our love is an expression of His goodness, an outward manifestation of His indwelling righteousness that finds satisfaction in pleasing Him with purity born of total submission to His divine will.

 

Our love will extol the virtues of justice, dignity and mercy.  Abiding in Him, we will be motivated to ensure that justice prevails upon our every domain, that fairness and equality are upheld in deed and not merely in rhetoric or litigation of questionable worth.  We will be willing to hold the guilty accountable for their transgressions so that they may learn the error of their ways and come to repentance, thereby protecting the innocent, preventing the creation of more victims and abbreviating the perpetrator’s list of offenses.  Our words and actions will lovingly uphold and affirm the dignity of all human souls, recognizing that all are precious in His sight and are never devalued by the application of secular standards of worth.  Instead, being ever mindful of Christ’s love for us and the sacrifices He made on our behalf, we will share with others the same mercy He has shown us.  We give to the ungrateful, forgive the impenitent, serve the undeserving, respect the contemptible, share with the selfish, and teach the ignorant.  Ultimately, we love the unlovable as Christ first loved us.

 

Our love will be tempered with patience rather than being compromised by rash actions or quick tempers, and we will not express impatience even when harried by demons.  Our love is eternal, a constant in time, always on our agenda and is never importune when abiding in His will and exercising godly discernment.  We will learn to love with acceptance; meeting people where they are at and helping them grow from there, and do so without condemnation or criticism of their shortcomings, being mindful of our own need for His forgiveness.  We do not usurp the province of God; we teach Truth with gentleness, firmly trusting the Holy Spirit to communicate any necessary conviction of ungodliness.  We will learn self-control so that our love is not negated by thoughtlessness or impulsive reactions, but is preserved by the stillness of unshakable faith and an uncompromised trust in God.

 

Our love will be manifest in acts of charity, the giving of our means and ourselves wherever our Lord calls us to serve, returning to Him a piece of His bounty that He has entrusted to us.  The love in our hearts will compel us to give generously and joyfully, for we know that sharing His goodness with another may just be the warm introduction to God a lost soul needs to find their way home to Him.  Our love is shared with others with hospitality, being considerate and kindly, welcoming guests and not treating others as unwanted, obtrusive, or otherwise unworthy of our time or effort.

 

Our love will be a constant in all our relations because we have learned to forgive another’s shortcomings in the same manner God has forgiven us, completely and unconditionally.  Our love for others will shine with a godly kindness that cheers the disheartened, restores hope in goodness, and reorients the recipient’s heart toward the benevolence of God.  By loving others, we will learn of compassion and be moved to redress another’s suffering and pain, and learn of the miraculous healing powers God has made available to us when we live virtuously.

 

Love is all the above, twined and threaded into a single thought and expression, in obedience to His will, and with proper discernment, rightly balanced for the unique considerations of any given situation.  Love gives His will top priority and is willing to make sacrifices for the benefit of another.  Love has purpose, to please God, to spread goodness instead of evil, and to help the lost find their way home to Him.  By living love, we find the abundant life Christ said would be ours in Him (Jn.10:10).

 

God has given us a most wondrous example of the many aspects of love being expressed singularly in the salvation history and summarized in John 3:16, “For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life.”  Let us now seek to understand His love by attempting to discern the components of love found in this verse and see the attributes of God that are the virtues we aspire to attain.   First, a word of caution; contrasting how God loves us against how we are to love God, and then against how we are to love one another, creates some difficulties due to the uniqueness of the Almighty; comparing the infinite with the finite certainly leads to unequal findings.  However, God has given us many examples and shown us how to love despite our shortcomings and limitations (Micah 6:8), and has likewise empowered us to do so (Acts 1:8).  To use the excuse, “I’m only human” may be true for the secular world, but for the children of God it is a lie because we have the power of the indwelling Holy Spirit enabling us to commit acts of love worthy to present as gifts before the King.

 

By sending His Son into the world, we are given an unadulterated glimpse of His wisdom (1Jn.1).  With this insight, we develop a fear of our Lord with greater depth and appreciation.  We are also given the means to His knowledge and wisdom through the words and acts of Jesus.  The presence of our risen Lord in our lives enables us to love Him with a rock solid foundation of faith that leads to divinely inspired courageous actions or restraint tempered by self-control born of a godly conscience.  His plan of salvation also provides for us after His departure; at Pentecost He blessed us with the power of the Holy Spirit who now lives within us, allowing mankind to abide in His presence as Adam and Eve once did in the Garden of Eden, today on Earth and then eternally in Heaven.  The indwelling Holy Spirit helps us develop an ever-present spiritual awareness that leads to the virtues of watchfulness and remembrance of Him.  His presence brings peace and hope to souls ravaged by sin.  By pursuing purity made available though Christ, we come to know the serenity of stillness and the unspeakable beauty of Heaven while yet on Earth.  The love of God is expressed with such simplicity in John 3:16 that virtually no prior doctrinal teaching is required to understand it, and children are able to come to a saving knowledge of Him at very tender ages.  This verse challenges a soul to take a soul-searching self-assessment, the beginnings of honesty, of the ability to acknowledge Truth that leads to developing integrity based on knowledge of His Word.

 

The proclamation of the coming of Christ is cause for joy in Heaven and on Earth.  It gives His children much cause for thankfulness and praise as the glory of God shines with blinding brilliance in His presence.  In the perfect timing of His arrival, we see the patience of God in the many years He prepared the world by sending prophets as documented in the Old Testament books.  The Son of God coming down from Heaven to dwell among us is an act of humility on a scale that can only be understood as the love of God.  He likewise generously expresses the selfless and sacrificial qualities required to manifest goodness for the benefit of others.  His love shows us mercy because we were yet sinners when He died for us, demonstrating His acceptance of us despite our sinful state.  He affirms our dignity by saying we are worth all that Christ sacrificed and achieved for our sakes (Rom.5:8).  His charitable plan likewise provides the means for our forgiveness.   His ultimate sacrifice, dying for all our sins, upholds the justice of God, for the lawful penalty of sin is the agonizing death of total separation from God, a death His mercy makes unnecessary for any human soul to suffer. Instead, the hospitality of God invites us into His home of many rooms that Jesus now compassionately prepares for us (Jn.14:2).  In the meantime, Jesus tells us to “Go and do the same” (Lk.10:37) with the gentle assurance that He is with us always, “even till the end of the age” (Mt.28:20).

 

 

Scriptural References:

 

Love

Mt. 5:43-48, Jesus instructs us to love all souls with perfect virtue

Mt.22:36-40, Jesus teaches us to love God above all things and then one another

Lk.6:27-38, Jesus tells us to love others unconditionally as our Father in Heaven loves us

Lk.10:25-37, Jesus teaches us to love our neighbors with mercy and compassion

Jn.14:15-21, Jesus says our love for Him will help keep us attuned to God

Jn.15:9-17, Jesus commands us to follow His example in loving sacrificially

Rom.12:9-21, our love is zealous, energetic and humble in overcoming evil with virtues

1Cor.13:1-13, if our love isn’t rightly motivated then all our service is corrupt

1Jn.3:16-24, if we love in Truth, our hearts will be stirred to action by our virtues

1Jn.4:7-21, our love for God and others identifies us as children of God abiding in Him

 

 

Commentaries:

 

Love:

“When the intellect begins to perceive the Holy Spirit with full consciousness, we should realize that grace is beginning to paint the divine likeness over the divine image in us.  Artists first draw the outline of a man in monochrome, and then add one color after another, until little by little they capture the likeness of the subject down to the smallest details.  In the same way the grace of God starts by remaking the divine image in man into what it was when he was first created.  But when it sees us longing with all our heart for the beauty of the divine likeness and humbly standing naked in its atelier, then by making one virtue after another come into flower and exalting the beauty of the soul ‘from glory to glory’ (2Cor.3:18), it depicts that we are being formed into the divine likeness; but the perfecting of this likeness we shall know only by the light of grace.  For through its power of perception the intellect regains all the virtues, other than spiritual love, as it advances according to the measure and rhythm which cannot be expressed; but no one can acquire spiritual love unless he experiences fully and clearly the illumination of the Holy Spirit.  If the intellect does not receive the perfection of the divine likeness through such illumination, although it may have almost every other virtue, it will still have no share in perfect love.  Only when it has been made like God – in so far, of course, as this is possible – does it bear the likeness of divine love as well.  In portraiture, when the full range of colors is added to the outline, the painter captures the likeness of the subject, even down to the smile.  Something similar happens to those who are being repainted by God’s grace in the divine likeness:  when the luminosity of love is added, then it is evident that the image has been fully transformed in the beauty of the likeness.  Love alone among the virtues can confer dispassion on the soul, for ‘love is the fulfilling of the law’ (Rom.13:10).  In this way our inner man is renewed day by day through the experience of love, and in the perfection of love it finds its own fulfillment.”

St. Diadochos of Photiki (5th C.); The Philokalia, Vol. I, pg. 288 #89

 

“If, as St. John says, ‘God is love’, then ‘he who dwells in love dwells in God, and God in him’ (1Jn.4:16).  But he who hates his neighbor, through this hatred, is separated from love.  He, then who hates his brother is separated from God, since ‘God is love, and he who dwells in love dwells in God, and God in him.’”

St. John of Karpathos (7th C.), The Philokalia, Vol. I, pg. 321

 

“Perfect love… loves all men equally.  It loves the good as friends and the bad as enemies, helping them, exercising forbearance, patiently accepting whatever they do, not taking the evil into account at all but even suffering on their behalf if the opportunity offers, so that, if possible, they too become friends.  If it cannot achieve this, it does not change its own attitude; it continues to show the fruits of love to all men alike.  It was on account of this that our Lord and God Jesus Christ, showing His love for us, suffered for the whole of mankind and gave to all men and equal hope of resurrection, although each man determines his own fitness for glory or punishment.”

St. Maximos Confessor (7th C.), The Philokalia Vol. II, pg. 60

 

Chapter 18 – Sharing Virtue – Justice, Dignity, and Mercy

Justice:  to execute right judgment in accord with the Word of God; discernment in accord with Truth; divine equity, giving others what they are due in regards to recognizing the dignity of all mankind; to exact what is due, holding the guilty accountable; righteous discernment when considering mercy or punitive measures

Dignity:  to honor and respect all souls as precious beings created by God

Mercy:  willingness to forgive; showing unqualified kindness to strangers, enemies or the otherwise undeserving; graciousness, compassion, loving-kindness, benevolence

 

A recurring theme of the Bible is that we are to give to others what God has given us.  It is likewise taught that what we do for others will be returned to us (Mt.6:5, 12, 14-15, 7:1-2, 12).  If our hearts are not moved to showing others the goodness of God simply out of our love for Him, knowing that we reap what we sow (Gal.6:7-8) should tempt even the most selfish souls to show a little kindness towards others and abstain from injustice.  Here is where we learn that our pursuit of virtue requires sharing our gifts.  There are two items to note here in the economy of God.  First, sharing the virtues of justice, dignity and mercy need not exact a monetary or material cost, especially when returns are taken into account.   Second, when we share spiritual things our quantity is doubled, not halved as with physical things.  A full share for both giver and receiver, and likewise, repetitive shares do not create smaller fractions, but replicate and grow by multiplication.  Praise God!

 

The virtues of justice, dignity and mercy should collectively govern all our relationships.  Whether our interaction is one on one, one to many, or many to many, they are the guide wires that keep us on track with God.  Their interaction, like the twined cord, proves strong and lasting, garnering ways protected by God.  Without them, relationships, businesses and nations collapse as they run contrary to God.  Justice ensures that we treat others fairly and impartially.  Affirming the dignity of all souls brings the presence of God to bear upon all human interaction.  Likewise, the divine origin of mercy elevates relationships into the heavenly realm while addressing the needs of otherwise undeserving souls, bearing witness to the goodness of God.

 

Justice

 

Justice assumes law.  The Law of God is recorded in the Pentateuch (the Five Books of Moses; Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy) and is applicable to all mankind.   The Law is based on the value system of God, predicated upon fairness and impartiality towards all peoples.  Justice requires knowledge of Truth and wisdom from God in order to rightly discern and execute the will of God.  The execution of justice is to be entrusted to honest souls who value virtue and are not swayed by selfish, self-serving motives.  Justice is righteousness in action, ensuring that everyone’s God ordained rights are upheld.  As we affirm the dignity of others, we preserve our own by acknowledging the higher Law of God that declares all souls are precious to Him, including ourselves.  The opposite is also true; when we inflict an injustice upon another soul, we rob ourselves of dignity by not adhering to the value system that gives it to us while debasing ourselves with sin.  Also, what we do to one soul makes a statement about how we assess humanity overall.  Justice ceases to exist when dignity is compromised because the Law of God has not been upheld; therefore, godly discernment is required to recognize fair application of the Law.

 

To execute justice, to judge another soul as being guilty of an offense and take recourse to rectify, may on the surface appear unloving and contrary to merciful forgiveness.  It is neither.  Assuming that our discernment is righteous and the offense real, failure to hold the guilty accountable is contrary to the Law and therefore compromises dignity, in essence lying to the offender by saying that their behavior is acceptable when it is not.  A person needs to be convinced of their guilt in order to correct their erroneous beliefs that compromise the dignity of their victims as well as themselves.  Holding the guilty accountable is how this is accomplished.  Our forgiveness neither absolves guilt for an offense nor exonerates the perpetrator; it is a pardon after sentencing on a personal level.  It is unloving to allow a soul to live in darkness and condemnation; enforcing His Law by holding the guilty accountable is a testimony for the Truth of God.  It allows the offender to see and experience the will of God in action.  When felons serve prison time, they have been given a sure message that their behavior is wrong and that they need to repent of their ungodliness.  Capital punishment may seem like eye for an eye retribution or compounding evil with evil, but sentencing a murderer to meet our Creator may just be what it takes to bring such a soul to repentance.  Forfeiting time on Earth pales in comparison to the penalty of eternal condemnation.  Also in the administration of justice, by sentencing felons according to the severity of their crimes, we protect others and prevent the creation of more victims, which is likewise an act of love.  It is a sign of ungodly delusion when someone condemns the innocent while failing to hold the guilty accountable as exemplified by taking a political position against capital punishment while promoting the practice of aborting the life of womb-bound babies.

 

In the Gospel of John, chapter 8, the story is told of the woman caught in adultery who is then brought before Jesus by the Pharisees, the religious and civil rulers of the era.  The woman was publicly arrested amid her passion, dragged disrobed and disheveled across town, and brought into the synagogue’s courtyard where Jesus was teaching a gathering of worshippers.  According to the Law, the penalty for adultery among the chosen people of God prior to Christianity was to throw stones at the guilty until dead (Lev.20:10).  Though the penalty seems quite harsh, it exemplifies how we are to treat any sin in our lives, totally obliterate it and prevent further contamination to our families and communities.  God is holy, and we are to be holy as God is holy (Lev.11:44).  The Pharisees brought the woman to Jesus to see whether He would uphold the Law and consent to her stoning.  Jesus and the Pharisees were often at odds with each other over the application of the Law; they accused Him of breaking the Sabbath and blasphemy.  Jesus declared that they were replacing godliness with religious observance, that by their pretense of piety instead of pursuing inner virtue, they “strain out the gnat and swallow the camel” (Mt.23:13-33).

 

On this occasion, the Pharisees were guilty of a variety of offenses.  First and foremost, they failed to acknowledge the deity of Christ Jesus, the ultimate judge (Mt.19:28), an offense that brings condemnation (Jn.3:16-21).  Secondarily, they were unwittingly putting God to a test which we are told not to do (Deut.6:16, Mt.4:7).  The list of their offenses committed in this act of arrogance before God goes on, however, it is enough for us here to see that they were wrongly motivated and therefore nullified themselves as being worthy judiciaries.  Jesus rebuked the gnat-straining, camel-drinkers by pointing out their hypocrisy and poor discernment concerning the Law.  Their motivations for bringing this woman to Jesus included revenge, self-justification, hatred, self-preservation, and contempt, while quite lacking in the virtues of humility and compassion.

 

While they held the woman in front of Him, Jesus knelt and wrote in the loose dirt upon the ground about their feet.  Whatever He wrote, it seemed to bring their hearts into conviction, for they began to walk away one by one when Jesus invited anyone without sin among them to throw the first rock.  It was then that Jesus turned to the woman and executed justice with mercy.  Her guilt obvious, her shame sincere, with repentance in her heart and her confession of Christ Jesus as Lord forthcoming, Jesus knowing the hearts of human souls (Mt.9:4, Lk.16:15), forgave her sins as only God can do.  His instruction to “go and sin no more”, acknowledges both the sin and its penalty of condemnation.  Jesus, acting in His full authority as Son of God, is ever justified.  In Christ we are likewise justified (Rom.5:1-9, 1Cor.6:11, Titus 3:4-8) and entrusted with the authority and responsibility of executing justice as a ministry and in service to God and man.

 

Dignity

 

Dignity is the virtue that acknowledges the value of all human life as being sacred.  Mankind is the most valued of all creation because we are created in His image as spiritual beings.  Dignity is the pivot point upon which the arms of justice rest; the scales of justice are useless and corrupt when dignity is compromised.  All judicial decisions must affirm the dignity of all litigants in order to be fair.  A crime is an offense against the Law, and the Law is based on upholding the sacred order of creation, especially the dignity of mankind.  Crime is as much a sinful affront to God as it is an offense against an individual or a community.  Crime is not to be compounded by the sin of injustice.  Holding the guilty accountable out of hope for their repentance and restoration is not a thought born of rationalization or cowardice, it is obediently accepting the responsibility to uphold the Law and prevent the creation of more victims; it is one way to combat evil.  All crimes violate the dignity of the victims.  A murderer doesn’t acknowledge another person’s right to life.  A thief doesn’t recognize the right of others to possess their own property.  A rapist doesn’t value the right of persons to possess their own body, soul or spirit.  Offenders demean themselves by their actions, becoming known by their ungodly behavior rather than virtue.

 

The severity of crime is measured by the degree of injury to our human dignity; a victim’s emotional pain is the perceived loss of dignity.  However, as painful as being a victim can be, this perceived loss of dignity is not based on Truth because as Christians our dignity comes from God and is therefore permanent and not subject to the forces of the physical realm.  Our dignity is neither upheld nor compromised by how people treat us, or even how we treat ourselves.  The source of our dignity is in the hands of God, not people, and especially not the ungodly.

 

As we learn the virtue of dignity, we learn to affirm the worth of others and ourselves.  Remembering people’s names, showing simple courtesies, opening doors and yielding so others may go before us, are all ways to affirm another’s dignity.  Learning dignity keeps us from abusing others with insulting or demeaning words or actions.  The virtue of dignity is not to be compromised by the value system of the flesh (Phil.3:8), or by any form of discrimination, prejudice or personal bias that serves to devalue another soul.  The more intimate the relationship, the greater the need for dignity for it to be healthy and spiritually uplifting.  Nagging, nit picking, criticizing and intimidation can all undermine a relationship by gnawing away at a person’s sense of self worth.  Over time, such sustained abuse can eventually lead to a variety of anxiety or personality disorders for those whose identity isn’t firmly based on Truth.  Children are especially vulnerable; therefore, they need continual affirmation in order to grow up knowing dignity.  We all need dignity to be spiritually and mentally healthy.  We need to know that we have value and that our lives have significance.  This prevents making life decisions based on a sense of worthlessness that leads to reckless behaviors such as promiscuity, abuse of intoxicants, and crime.  Without regressing into a legalistic mentality, other behaviors that compromise dignity that should cause us to check our motivations include mocking, sarcasm, malicious teasing and gossip, ostracizing, insults, sass, ridicule, dishonesty, disloyalty, manipulation, and imposition.  Checking these should prevent lapsing into the more grotesque assaults upon dignity, a list that includes torture, slavery, abduction, sadistic dominance or masochism, terrorism, thievery, murder, extortion, prostitution, usury, exploitation, and oppression.

 

As with crime, another demonic ploy devised as an attempt to strip souls of their God ordained dignity, is to create institutions that seek to deprive individuals of their right to self-determination.  When God created us, He gave us free will that we might choose to worship Him on our own volition so that our exaltation of Him would be pure and not compromised by compulsion or the inability to choose.  God has no need to fear the loss of influence and therefore has no need to enforce conformity; He allows us our mistakes so that we might learn and come to worship Him voluntarily.  We are to uphold the dignity of others by giving to them what God has given us, the use of free will.  Institutions that impose ideologies and lifestyles upon their constituents by use of force or severe punishments are not motivated by the love of God, but rather by such things as the fear of men, fear of death, selfish self promotion, pride, lust for power or control, greed, or even outright defiance to God the Creator.  Also, as with all crime, such institutions require His children to redress in order to uphold justice.  There is virtue in the effort to free souls from such tyranny.

 

Mercy

To be merciful is to express the loving-kindness of God to an undeserving soul.  Genuine mercy has but one motivation, to show others the mercy God has shown us.  Being merciful acknowledges the enormity of our sin-debt to God, and seeks to alleviate it in miniscule ways by sharing the grace of God with others.  Being merciful is contrary to every fiber of mankind’s flesh because mercy, like holiness, is uniquely divine in origin.  Secular substitutes may produce the appearance of sympathy or benevolence, but without personally acknowledging our indebtedness to God for the restoration of mankind through Christ Jesus, there is no mercy.  Outpourings of humanistic kindness do not qualify as expressing the virtue of mercy because of not being motivated by the goodness of God.

 

If there is a rarity of mercy in our lives, it may be due to lack of remembrance or possibly the fact that acts of mercy require certain conditions.  For us to express mercy toward another, they need to owe us a debt or otherwise be in need, and be undeserving of any due consideration save for the love of God.  Forgiving the offenses of friends and loved ones is righteous but not necessarily merciful.  Jesus outlines the criteria for mercy in the Sermon on the Mount (Mt.5:38-48).  He speaks of mercy as a quality of the sons of God, of showering His goodness upon both the righteous and the unrighteous, without partiality.  The intent here is not to subject mercy to a litany of legalistic considerations, but rather to distinguish and elevate mercy to its rightful and proper place.  We do this so that we may be free of delusion as we seek to expand the Kingdom of God on Earth by sharing with others what He has given us (Mt.6:10; 28:18-20).  The bible makes it quite clear that we are to show mercy to others as God has mercifully shown us mercy.  When we do so, we invite the furthering of His mercies in His providential care for us.  Discerning His mercy may be difficult to distinguish from His goodness in daily circumstances, but anytime we fail to receive punitive consequences for ungodliness, or recognize we’ve been doubly blest, we should pause and give praise and thanks to God for His goodness and His mercy.  Mercy is very pleasing to God and He showers rewards upon those whose deeds are merciful.  Our expressions of mercy are evidence of the Holy Spirit within us.

 

A falling leaf may be blown helter-skelter by shifting winds, but the will of God is like the flow of a river that takes the fallen leaf only in the direction of its current.  Likewise, as we learn to abide in the Holy Spirit, we should be sensitive to His call for mercy when we would otherwise in the flesh chaotically react or systematically retaliate.  Mercy is contrary to the carnal desires for reprisals, retributions or revenge that are symptomatic of living in the flesh.  A soul would be most blest not to have these passions, but we are none-the-less called upon to express the love of God without partiality and without thought for another’s deservedness.  Again, we do this in remembrance of His love for us as expressed by the giving of His Son in propitiation for our sins.   Praising and thanking God for His mercy towards us should allow us to be cheerful in our expression of mercy.  It should likewise prevent us from being reluctantly motivated into compassionate deeds out of resignation, or fear of losing blessings, or discipline for disobedience.

 

The example of Jesus and His teachings tell us that we are not to ignore pleas for mercy and that God likewise acknowledges our pleas for His mercy (Mt.5:7, 18:23-35).  Mercy does not supplant the administration of justice; rather, it gives us more options in expressing the supremacy of His love.  Incarcerating those obsessed by evil is merciful in that it keeps them from compiling more misdeeds that contribute to the degradation of their soul, exacerbate their guilt, and lengthen their list of offenses to atone for should they come to repentance.  Mercy also acknowledges another’s dignity by deeming them worthy to receive loving-kindness and compassion.  Our mere distaste for the sight of pain, or distress for the sight of suffering, or any other aversions we harbor that inhibits our service to the needy, does not absolve us of responsibility or culpability for being merciful; courage is often needed prior to expressions of mercy.  Those blest with the gift of mercy are uniquely qualified to minister in hospices and hospitals as well as many types of public service.

 

Scriptural References:

 

Justice: 

Ex.23:1-8, ordinances to execute justice honestly with fairness and without partiality

Lev.19:15, ordinance against judicial injustice and partiality for whatever reason

Deut.1:16-17, instruction to administer justice fairly and impartially

Deut.16:19, justice is not to be distorted by partiality, bribery, or any unrighteousness

Deut.16:20, justice is to be the singular pursuit of nations

Deut.24:17-18, justice is not to be withheld from aliens or the dispossessed

Deut.27:19, failure to uphold justice with righteousness incurs the wrath of God

Ps.11:7, our Lord is righteous and loves justice, the upright come into His presence

Ps.33:5, God loves righteousness and justice

Ps.106:3, those who uphold justice in righteousness are blessed by God

Ps.112:5, conduct that is equitable and just brings blessings from God

Pr.8:12-21, wisdom from God is necessary to execute justice with righteousness

Pr.18:5, warning against siding with the ungodly or siding against the godly

Pr.21:15, the righteous find joy in justice while the ungodly fear the consequences

Pr.28:5, the ungodly have no appreciation for justice; righteousness brings understanding

Pr.29:7, the righteous seek justice for all, the ungodly show no such concern

Pr.29:26, true justice is ultimately the province of God

Is.1:13-20, be good and just; there are fatal consequences for ungodliness and injustice

Zech.7:8-10, dispense justice in Truth, do not rule in oppression or devise evil schemes

Mal.3:1-5, our Lord will come to execute justice and judge those who oppress and abuse

Mt.12:15-21, the cause of Christ brings justice to all peoples; justice will prevail

Mt.23:23-24, religious observance does not excuse the absence of faith, justice or mercy

Lk.11:42, Jesus asserts justice and love as integral components of worship

Lk.18:3-8, wait patiently and never doubt that God will execute justice

 

Dignity (to honor): 

Ps.8:3-9, a psalm recognizing the preciousness of mankind to God

Ps.15, a description of a life in accord with the economy of God

Pr.3:13-16, the true richness of life comes with the honor of wisdom

Pr.13:18, honor comes from the ability to hear, accept and respond to correction in Truth

Pr.15:33, the honor of wisdom requires humility

Pr.21:21, the pursuit of righteousness brings honor

Pr.31:25, a virtuous woman is blest with dignity

Ac.28:10, the righteous are given the respect of others and consideration for their needs

Rom.12:9-13, we are to honor our brothers and sisters in Christ preferentially

1Cor.12:21-26, church members are a single body and are honored or disgraced as one

Eph.5:33, we are to honor our spouses and affirm their dignity

Eph.6:2, we are to honor our parents and uphold their dignity

1Thes.4:3-8, sexual immorality compromises dignity; lust demeans a soul

1Thes.5:12-13, show honor and appreciate those whose occupation is service to our Lord

1Tim.5:17, honor gospel teachers, preachers and church elders who lead well

2Tim.2:19-21, cleansing ourselves of ungodliness brings honor from God

 

Mercy:

Ex.25:10-22, the construction of the Ark of the Covenant and the mercy seat of God

Ps.6:9, David pleas for the mercy of God who accepts his prayer

Ps.25:10, those who live by the Word of God will see His mercy in Truth

Ps.32:8-11, wickedness begets sorrow while trusting the ways of God elicits His mercy

Ps.33:16-19, to fear our Lord and have hope in His mercy keeps evil at bay

Ps.86:5-7, God has an abundance of mercy for those who call upon His name

Ps.103:11, the love and mercy of God is boundless towards those who fear Him

Ps.145:8-9, our Lord is merciful and His works attest to His great benevolence

Pr.3:3-4, being merciful in Truth brings honor from both God and our fellows

Pr.11:17, showing mercy is good for the soul while cruelty creates a troubled soul

Pr.14:21, being merciful to the poor bring happiness

Pr.14:31, we honor God by being merciful; contempt for God when we oppress the poor

Pr.28:13, openly confessing and forsaking sin will evoke the mercy of others

Dan.4:26-28, Daniel tells Nebuchadnezzar to be merciful to prolong his prosperity

Hos.6:6, showing others mercy is more pleasing to God than our religious practices

Mic.6:8, our Lord requires justice, mercy and humility in His presence

Zech.7:9-10, our Lord instructs us to administer justice with compassion and mercy

Mt.5:7, Jesus says the merciful shall be blest with mercy

Mt.9:13, Jesus instructs us to learn what Hos.6:6 means

Mt.9:27-31, two blind men plea to Jesus for mercy and sight; Jesus blesses them

Mt.17:14-18, a man pleads for mercy for his crazed son; Jesus casts out the demon

Mt.18:23-35, God has shown us great mercy; we should be merciful to others as well

Lk.1:76-79, Jesus by the mercy of God brings light into a dark world

Lk.6:32-36, God is merciful; therefore, we are to show mercy toward others

Lk.10:25-37, Jesus teaches us to show mercy without partiality, prejudice or selfishness

Lk.17:11-17, the mercy of God should bring us to express thankfulness and praise to God

Rom.11:30-36, praise for the wondrous mercy of God towards a sinful world

Rom.12:4-8, sharing the gift of mercy should be accompanied with cheerfulness

Eph.2:4-9, remembrance of the grace of God and His mercy

Heb.4:14-16, draw near to God when in need and be blest by His mercy

Jas.2:12-13, being merciful invites the mercies of God into our lives

Jas.3:17-18, seeking the wisdom of God leads to learning mercy

1Pet.1:3-9, by the mercy of God we are born anew into the fullness of eternal life

Jude 1:19-23, as we await the return of Christ, by His mercies we are to be merciful

 

Commentaries:

 

Justice:

“Justice is sometimes called discrimination [discernment]:  it establishes the just mean in every undertaking, so that there will be no falling short due to over-frugality, or excess on account of greed.  …the person able to hold fast to justice is neither dragged down through thoughtlessness, licentiousness, cowardice or greed… nor does he fall victim to craftiness, and overbearingness, to stupidity and over-frugality, to excessive astuteness and cunning. Rather he ‘judges with self-restraint’ and endures with patient humility, fully acknowledging that whatever he possesses he has received by grace, as St. Paul puts it (cf. 1Cor.4:7).”

“…the person to whom it is granted to keep the commandments gives not only his possessions but even his very life for his neighbour.  This is the perfect mercy; for just as Christ endured death on our behalf, giving all an example and a model, so we should die for one another, and not only for our friends, but for our enemies as well, should the occasion call for it.”

St. Peter of Damaskos (11th C.); The Philokalia Vol. III, pg. 258-9

 

Dignity:

“The virtue of justice respects the rights of every person, not merely because it is unfair to do otherwise.  Rather, justice respects the personal rights because it respects the person, his or her sacredness as a child of God, created by God, with a right to live as fully human a life as possible.  Once we admit the sacredness of human life as an end in itself, justice issues become self-evident.  Once we acknowledge that each and every human being, regardless of age, intelligence, or race, has a God-given value that no one has the right to violate, then justice questions present their own answers.”

Mitch Finley, “The Catholic Virtues” © 1999 by Ligouri Publications, pg. 72

 

“The virtue of authentic justice cultivates respect for the dignity of all persons, for the right of all to the resources they need, and for the privilege of all to be involved in decisions that shape their lives.”

ibid. pg. 73

 

Mercy:

“Because He wishes to unite us in nature and will with one another, and in His goodness urges all humanity towards this goal, God in His love entrusted His saving commandments to us, ordaining simply that we should show mercy and receive mercy (cf. Mt.5:7).”

St. Maximos the Confessor (6-7th C.); The Philokalia Vol. II, pg. 173#45

 

 

“A truly merciful person is not one that deliberately gives away superfluous things, but one that forgives those who deprive him of what he needs.”

Ilias the Presbyter (12th C.); The Philokalia Vol. III, pg. 37 #27

 

“The merciful person is he who gives to others what he has himself received from God, whether it be money, or food, or strength, a helpful word, a prayer, or anything else that he has through which he can express his compassion for those in need.  At the same time he considers himself a debtor, since he has received more than he is asked to give.  By Christ’s grace, both in the present world and in the world to come, before the whole of creation he is called merciful, just as God is called merciful (cf. Lk.6:36).”

St. Peter of Damaskos (11th C.); The Philokalia Vol. III, pg. 96-97

“To master the mundane will of the fallen self you have to fulfill three conditions.  First, you have to overcome avarice by embracing the law of righteousness, which consists in merciful compassion for one’s fellow beings; second, you have to conquer self-indulgence through prudent self-restraint, that is to say, through all-inclusive self-control; and, third, you have to prevail over your love of praise through sagacity and sound understanding, in other words through exact discrimination [discernment] in things human and divine, trampling such love underfoot as something cloddish and worthless.  All this you have to do until the mundane will is converted into the law of the spirit of life and liberated from domination by the law of the outer fallen self.  Then you can say, ‘I thank God that the law of the spirit of life has freed me from the law and dominion of death’ (cf. Rom.8:3).”

Nikitas Stithatos (11th C.); The Philokalia Vol. IV, pg 82 #13